This is a pondered biography, free of fanaticism, about the most famous and influential Mexican bishop of the 20th century, a man of action who grew up listening to stories about the Mexican Revolution and religious persecution. He was both well-loved and criticized in and outside the church. This passionate historical study gathers many documents inaccessible until now and includes first-hand accounts from members of the Catholic hierarchy. It discusses whether Samuel Ruiz promoted a theology that incited violence or, on the contrary, if he preached against the armed struggle and defended the rights of the indigenous population. It sheds light on the other churches in Chiapas, on the social project of the diocese, and on the roles of the sub-commander Marcos and the governor Patrocinio Gonzalez.