Machado�2s description in 1937 of the work of culture as increasing the human wealth of vigilant consciousness in the world shows how well placed he was to make an important contribution to promoting an enlarged consciousness of the Spanish Civil War, an awareness that was such an integral part of the defense of values and even of the territory of the Spanish Republic. I have never worked as I am now doing , Machado said in an interview given in 1938. The writings that were the product of these new creative energies have for too long been relegated to relative obscurity by the extended aftermath of the Spanish Civil War. Against the background of contemporary political developments in Spain, Whiston�2s book examines the expression of Machado�2s thought in Juan de Mairena (1936), La Guerra (1937), Hora de Espa�1a (1937�638), La Vanguardia (1938�639) and other writings. Whiston concludes that Machado nearly always succeeded in rekindling convictions about pacifism and militarism, about the value of the critical consciousness, and of the artist and intellectual in society, vigorously rising to the challenge presented by the Spanish Civil War.